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Fitne Series:  Portraits in Excellence:  Nurse Theorists:  Savina Schoenhofer on the theory of Nursing As Caring:  The Theory of Nursing As Caring | Nursology

Nursing As Caring:  In Books and Chapters Authored by Boykin & Schoenhofer


Boykin, A., & Schoenhofer, S. O. (2015).  Theory of Nursing As Caring.  In M. E. Parker & M.

C. Smith (Eds.), Nursing theories and nursing practice  (4th ed.), Philadelphia:  F. A.

Davis Company.


Boykin, A., & Schoenhofer, S. O. (2010). Anne Boykin and Savina O. Schoenhofer’s Nursing

As Caring theory.  In M. E. Parker & M. C. Smith (Eds.), Nursing theories and nursing

practice (3rd ed., pp. 370-385).  Philadelphia:  F. A. Davis Co.


Boykin, A., & Schoenhofer, S. O. (2023).  Nursing as caring: A model for transforming  practice. Fukuro Shuppan, ISBN 978-4-86186-218-2". [Japanese language translation by Toshiko Tada, RN, Ph.D., Tetsuya Tanioka, RN, Ph.D. FAAN, Yuko Yasuhara, RN, Ph.D., Kyoko Osaka, RN, Ph.D., et al.]  

Boykin, A., & Schoenhofer, S. O. (2001).  Nursing as caring: A model for transforming  practice.  Sudbury, CT: Jones & Bartlett Publications. 


Boykin, A., & Schoenhofer, S. O.  (2001).  Nursing As Caring:  A model for transforming

practice, Chapters 1 and 2.  Reprinted in M. C. Smith, M. C. Turkel & Z. R. Wolf, Caring

in nursing classics:  An essential resource.  New York:  Springer Publishing Company.


Boykin, A., & Schoenhofer, S.O. (2000). Nursing as caring: An overview of a general theory of

nursing. In M. E. Parker, Nursing theories and nursing practice. Philadelphia: F. A.

Davis Co., pp. 391-402.


Boykin, A., & Schoenhofer, S. O. (1993).  Nursing as caring: A model for transforming  practice.  New York: NLN Publications.


Schoenhofer, S.  O., & Boykin, A.  (l993).  Nursing As Caring:  Issues for practice.  In M. E.

Parker (Ed),  Patterns of nursing theories in practice.  New York:  National League for

Publications, pp. 83-92.

Boykin, A., Schoenhofer, S., & Valentine, K.  (2014).  Health care system transformation for nursing and health care leaders:  Implementing a culture of caring.   New York:  Springer Pub.


Nursing As Caring:  Chapters in Secondary Source Theory Collections


George, J. B.  (2010, 2001, 1995).  Nursing As Caring:  Anne Boykin and Savina Schoenhofer.

In J. B. George,(Ed.), Nursing theories:  The base for professional nursing practice (6th,

5th, 4th eds.).


Purnell, M.  (2010; 2006).  Anne Boykin & Savina O. Schoenhofer: Nursing As Caring: A model

for transforming practice.  In A. M. Tomey & M. R. Alligood (Eds.), Nursing theorists  and their work (7th ed., pp. 393-415; 6th ed., pp. 405-427), St. Louis: Mosby.


Nursing As Caring:  Use of the Theory



Abalos, E. E., Rivera, R. Y., Locsin, R. C., & Schoenhofer, S. O.  (2016).  Husserlian

             phenomenology and Colaizzi’s method of data analysis:  Exemplar in qualitative nursing

             inquiry using Nursing As Caring theory.  International Journal for Human Caring,

            20(1), 19-23.

Alforque, J. M. L., Meneses, R.C., Sorronda, M., & Locsin, R.C. (2020).  Development of the theory of encountering nursing in a nurse-nursed dyadic relationship (ThEENDyR). Open Journal of Nursing, 10, 777-809.  DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2020.109056


Boykin, A. (Ed.).   (1994). Living a caring-based program.  New York;  National League for Nursing.  (access  link for download at:


Boykin, A. (1998).  Nursing as caring through the reflective lens.  In D. Freshwater & C. Johns (Eds.), Transforming Nursing Through Reflective Practice (pp. 43-50).  London:  Blackwell.

Boykin, A., & Dunphy, L. (2002).  Reflective Essay.  Justice-making: Nursing's call. Policy, Politics & Nursing Practice, 3(1), 14-19.


Boykin, A., Bulfin, S., Baldwin, J., & Southern, B. (2004).  Transforming care in the emergency department.  Topics in Emergency Medicine, 26(4), 331-336.

Boykin, A., Parker, M., & Schoenhofer, S.  (1994). Aesthetic knowing grounded in an explicit

conception of nursing.  Nursing Science Quarterly, 7(4), 158-161.

Boykin, A., & Schoenhofer, S. O. (2022).  Storytelling: A Strategy for Caring Connection in Creative Nursing Leadership.  Nurse Leader, August 2022.


Boykin, A., & Schoenhofer, S. O.  (1997).  Reframing nursing outcomes.  Advanced Practice

            Nursing Quarterly, 1(3), 60-65.  Reprinted in W. K. Cody, Philosophical and theoretical

            perspectives for advanced nursing practice (5th ed.), 2013, Ch. 10.  Burlington, MA: 

            Jones & Bartlett Learning.


Boykin, A., & Schoenhofer, S. O. (2000). Is there really time to care?  Nursing Forum, 35(4),



Boykin, A., & Schoenhofer, S. O. (2001). The role of nursing leadership in creating caring

environments in health care delivery systems. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 25(3),


Boykin, A., Schoenhofer, S. O., Bulfin, S., Baldwin, J., & McCarthy, D.  (2005).  Living caring

in practice:  The transformative power of the theory of nursing as caring.  International

 Journal for Human Caring, 9(3), 15-19.

Boykin, A., Schoenhofer, S. O., Hilton, N.,  Scott, A., & Smith, L. (August 24, 2020).  “They have our backs”: Nursing leaders and caring-based nursing theory in the time of COVID-19. Nurse Leader, 19, 179-183.


Boykin, A., Schoenhofer, S. O., Smith, N., St. Jean, J., & Aleman, D.  (2003).  Transforming

Caring.   Holistic Nursing Practice, 16(4), 36-40.


Bulfin, S. (2005). Nursing as caring theory: Living caring in practice. Nursing Science Quarterly,

            18(4), 313-319.

Charbonneau-Dahlen, B. K. (2017).  A traditional American Indian death ritual:  Developing nursing knowledge through aesthetic      exposure.  Nurse  Education in Practice,


Dyess, S., & Boykin, A. ( 2013).  Hearing the voice of nurses in caring theory-based practice:  A process of practice environment transformation linked to caring theory. Nursing Science Quarterly.Nursing Science Quarterly, 26(2), 167-173.


Dyess, S., Boykin, A., & Rigg, C. (2010) Integrating caring theory with nursing education and practice: Connecting with what matters. Journal of Nursing Administration, 40(11), 498-503.


Kongsuwan, W., Keller, K., Touhy, T., & Schoenhofer, S. (2010). Thai Buddhist intensive care

 unit nurses' perspective of a peaceful death: An empirical study. International Journal of

Palliative Nursing, 16(5), 241-247.


Kongsuwan, W., Locsin, R. C., & Schoenhofer, S. O.  (2011). Knowing the occasion of peaceful

death in intensive care units in Thailand.  Nursing and Health Sciences, 13(1), 41-46. 


Locsin, R. C. (1995). Machine technologies and caring in nursing. Journal of Nursing

 Scholarship, 27(3), 201-203.


Locsin, R. C. (1998). Technologic competence as caring in critical care nursing. Holistic

 Nursing Practice, 12(4), 50.


Locsin, R. C. (2005). Technological competency as caring in nursing: A model for practice.

            Indianapolis: Sigma Theta Tau International.


McCance, T. V., McKenna, H. P., & Boore, J. R. (1999). Caring: Theoretical perspectives of

            relevance to nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 30(6), 1388-1395.


McCance, T. V., McKenna, H. P., & Boore, J. R. (1997). Caring: Dealing with a difficult

            concept. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 34(4), 241-248.


McCance, T., Slater, P., & McCormack, B. (2009). Using the caring dimensions inventory as an

            indicator of person‐centred nursing. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 18(3), 409-417.


McCormack, B. (2004). Person‐centredness in gerontological nursing: An overview of the

            literature. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 13(s1), 31-38.


McCormack, B., & McCance, T. V. (2006). Development of a framework for person‐centred

nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 56(5), 472-479.

Millender, E., Valentine, K., Eggenberger, T., Lucier, C., Sandala, H., & Bruneau, D. (2020). Implementing interprofessional collaboration to improve patient outcomes: A caring and social approach to integrated nurse-led community based-care. International Journal for Human Caring, 24(1), 39-49.


Mustard, L. W. (2002). Caring and competency. JONA's Healthcare Law, Ethics and Regulation,

 4(2), 36-43.


Parker, M. E., & Schoenhofer, S. O.  (2007).  Foundations for nursing education: Nursing as a

 discipline.  In B. A. Moyer & R. Whittmann-Price (Eds)., Nursing education:

\Foundations for practice and excellence (pp. 4-11), Philadelphia:  F. A. Davis.


Pross, E., Boykin, A., Hilton, N., & Gabuat, J. (2010).  A study of knowing nurses as caring. 

            Holistic Nursing Practice, 24, 142-147.


Pross, E., Hilton, N., & Boykin, A. (2011).  The “Dance of Caring Persons”.  Nursing Management, 42(10), 25-30.



Schoenhofer, S. O. (2001).  A framework for caring in a technologically dependent nursing

 practice environment.  In R.C. Locsin, Advancing technology, caring and nursing.

Westport, CT: Auburn House, a Subsidiary of Greenwood Publishing, pp. 3-11.


Schoenhofer, S. O. (2001). Outcomes of nurse caring in high technology practice environments.

In R.C. Locsin, Advancing technology, caring, and nursing. Westport, CT: Auburn

House, a Subsidiary of Greenwood Publishing, pp. 79-87.


Schoenhofer, S. O. (2002).  Philosophical underpinnings of an emergent methodology for

Nursing As Caring inquiry.  Nursing Science Quarterly, 15(4), 275-81.


Schoenhofer, S. O. (2002).  Choosing personhood: Intentionality and the theory of Nursing As

Caring.  Holistic Nursing Practice, 16(4), 36-40.


Schoenhofer, S., & Boykin, A. (1998). Discovering the value of nursing in high tech

            environments: Outcomes revisited. Holistic Nursing Practice, 12(4), 31-39.


Schoenhofer, S., & Boykin, A. (1998). The value of caring experienced in nursing. International

            Journal for Human Caring, 2(4), 9-15.


Schoenhofer, S., Bingham, V. & Hutchins, G. (1998).  Giving of oneself on another’s behalf:

            The phenomenology of everyday caring. International Journal for Human Caring, 2(2),



Shearer, J. E.  (2015).  Critique of Nursing as Caring Theory: Aesthetic knowing and caring in online learning.  International Journal for Human Caring, 19(2), 45-49.

Tetsuya and Associates (Eds).  (2017).  Nursing robots:  Robotic technology and human caring for the elderly.  Okayama City, Okayama, Japan: Fukuro Shuppan Publishing.


Thomas, J., Finch, L., Green, A., & Schoenhofer, S. O. (2005).  Nurse practitioner-patient caring.

         Topics in Advanced Practice Nursing, 4(4).


Touhy, T. A. (2004). Dementia, personhood, and nursing: Learning from a nursing situation.

        Nursing Science Quarterly, 17(1), 43-49.


Wallace, C. L., & Appleton, C. (1995). Nursing as the promotion of well‐being: The client's

        experience. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 22(2), 285-289.

Ware, S. M., & Schoenhofer, S. O.  (2017).  Perceptions of caring among baccalaureate nursing students during high-fidelity   simulation.  International Journal for Human Caring, 21(3), 1-14.

West, E., Gerwick, M., & Hockensmith, P. (2020).  Nursing As Caring: The lived experiences of caregivers for their cognitively impaired loved ones. Int J Hum Car, 26(1), 1-15.

Wiese, L. K., Williams, I. C., Holt, J. K., Williams, C. L., Lingler, J., Galvin, J. E., & Schoenberg, N. E. (2023). Testing the ‘Faith Moves Mountains model’ to increase Alzheimer’s disease awareness, detection, and diagnosis among rural, racially, and ethnically
diverse older adults.  Aging and Mental Health, 11, 1-14.

Wiese, L. A. K., Gibson, A., Guest, M. A., Nelson, A. R., Weaver, R., Gupta, A., ... & Babulal, G. M. (2023). Global rural health disparities in Alzheimer's disease and related dementias: State of the science. Alzheimer's & Dementia. 2023:1-22. DOI: 10.1002/alz.13104

Wiese, L. K., Love, T., & Goodman, R. (2021). Responding to a simulated disaster in the virtual or live classroom: is there a difference in BSN student learning?. Nurse education in practice, 55, 103170.

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